TLR International Laboratories

+31 (0)10 282 32 92



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2988 DB Ridderkerk







Roughage feeds

Roughage feeds form an essential part of the rations for ruminants. In addition to pasture grass and silage maize, various roughage feeds - whether or not ensiled - are fed to cattle, either separately or as part of a total mixed ration. Pigs, especially sows, can also be fed roughage (hay or straw) because this promotes their well-being and intestinal health.


The quality of roughage feeds is largely determined during cultivation: weather conditions, soil management and the time of harvesting significantly affect the composition. If desired, TLR can determine the protein, dry matter and starch content of your silage maize before it is ensiled. Ensiling must be done carefully: pre-dry if necessary, compact well and make airtight. After opening the pit, silage feeders are exposed to the air and may then become contaminated with unwanted micro-organisms. At TLR, we can analyse silage and other roughage feeds for not only pH, bacteria, fungi and yeast, but also for e.g. residues of crop protection agents.

In hay and straw, mycotoxins produced by moulds can pose a risk and the botanical composition is of particular importance for hay. Natural hay can contain, for example, ragwort, which is poisonous for horses and cattle.


Because roughage feeds are variable products, you need to know their nutritional composition to calculate the ration correctly. TLR can naturally also help you with this.


Which analyses are available for roughage feeds?

Weende components

- Moisture, raw protein, crude fat, starch and sugars, fibre fractions (NDF, ADF, lignin).


Nutrients in detail

- Amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, pH, organic acids.


Residues and contaminants

- Physical checks for contaminants, damaged or affected cereal grains and botanical composition.

- Pesticides / other crop protection agents

     - Fungicides, including dithiocarbamates

     - Herbicides, such as glyphosate, paraquat and diquat

     - Biocides

- Nitrate and nitrite

- Antibiotics (such as furazolidone in soya)

- Heavy metals, including lead, cadmium and mercury

- Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs

- Mycotoxins, including aflatoxin, deoxynivalenone, ochratoxin and fumonisins


Microbiological parameters

- Total germ count

- Pathogenic bacteria, such as salmonella, clostridia and E. coli.

- Spoilage microorganisms

- Yeasts and moulds

- Viruses, such as norovirus and hepatitis A


Genetic characteristics

- Detecting GMOs with PCR analysis


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